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主动降噪耳机与被动降噪耳机(噪音隔离耳机)

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发表于 2014-8-26 23:57:04 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Active noise cancelling vs. passive sound isolating headphones, a primer in noise control
I’ve always been into audio technology of any kind, from high-end Hi-Fi separates to portable audio. Some years back I was introduced to noise isolating and noise cancelling headphones/earphones, since then I never looked back. It’s not until you cut out external noise from your listening that you will appreciate how much ambient noise there is, especially if you travel by and means of pubic transport.
This is a primer in the technology behind passive and active noise control, which will hopefully introduce you to the theory, benefits and caveats of these technologies.
WHAT IS NOISE CONTROL OR NOISE REDUCTION?
Noise is unwanted sound that finds its way into your ears. In the context of noise-cancelling or isolating headphones, it’s any ambient sound that you don’t want to hear, such as the hum of a machine, the sound of an airplane or train, a baby crying, or people talking at a busy café. While listening to audio on your headphones, if you cut-out the unwanted noise you can both lower the volume, your listening experience improves and most importantly you get piece of mind, while protecting your ears.
ACTIVE NOISE CANCELLATION VS. PASSIVE NOISE CONTROL OR SOUND ISOLATION
So there are two ways this can be achieved, one way is to sound-proof your ear canals against outside noise and the other is to use an effect called destructive interference. Destructive interference occurs when two ‘mirror-image’ sound waves meet, then these two waves cancel each other out. Of course, noise reduction performance will depend on the design of each headset.
Passive sound isolating earbuds (or in-ear headphones) work much like earplugs. The sleeve, which can be made of elastic or foam extends into the ear canal and, provided it makes a good fit, stops (attenuates) all outside sound from coming into your ear canal and be heard. They are portable, don’t require a battery and cut out (reduce) all sounds, including voices etc. Unfortunately they might prove uncomfortable to some, because of their position and tight fit within the ear canal. They can also be very expensive. A similar effect can be achieved with bulky headphones that cover your entire ear.
Etymotic Research MC5 noise-isolating earphones

Active noise cancelling (ANC) headphones or earphones contain small microphones on each side near the ear, which pick-up outside noise and special circuitry that produce an out-of-phase (mirror) sound wave mixing it together with whatever you are actually listening. When both the outside noise and your headphones’ sound reach your eardrum, the noise part gets cancelled.
The noise that gets canceled with ANC earphones is mostly constant low frequency noise, such as the hum of a machine. Variable frequency noise such as someone talking will not be reduced as much by this circuitry. However, most ANC earphones also include some form of noise isolation as well, which cancels out the high-frequency part, so that you can get the best of both worlds.
Sony active noise-cancelling earphones with control unit

Because of the special circuitry required, ANC headphones usually require batteries in order to operate the ANC circuitry, with the battery and circuitry usually contained in a small control box. Because sound is passed through an electronic circuit, sound quality will depend on the quality of the circuitry.
Shure and Etymotic Research are known for their quality sound isolating earbuds. While Audio-Technica, Bose, Sony and Panasonic make good active noise cancelling (ANC) headphones and earphones.
My personal preference is ANC earphones, they remain comfortable even during extended use and noise reduction performance is great; sure they don’t offer the studio quality audio of some expensive sound isolating earphones, but they are perfect for use while travelling and good value for money. We have thoroughly reviewed two ANC earphones, the Audio-Technica ATH-ANC23 and Sony MDR-NC300D, be sure to check the links to read our opinion on each of them.
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发表于 2014-8-27 02:56:33 | 显示全部楼层
麻烦给个中文版撒。。。
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发表于 2014-8-27 09:25:04 | 显示全部楼层
同上
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发表于 2014-8-27 10:46:18 | 显示全部楼层
这个是没有中文的,自己翻译一下就好
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发表于 2014-8-28 10:26:11 | 显示全部楼层
LV工程师 发表于 2014-8-27 10:46
这个是没有中文的,自己翻译一下就好

看得好吃力。。。
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发表于 2014-8-28 16:03:03 | 显示全部楼层
我决定把这个帖子“汉化”
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发表于 2014-8-28 16:04:03 | 显示全部楼层
liamger 发表于 2014-8-27 02:56
麻烦给个中文版撒。。。


我决定把这个帖子“汉化”
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发表于 2014-11-10 10:30:18 | 显示全部楼层
向着北极星 发表于 2014-8-28 16:04
我决定把这个帖子“汉化”

等着你的汉化呢
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发表于 2019-3-27 12:01:25 | 显示全部楼层
主动降噪与无源隔音耳机,噪音控制的入门
作者:Alexis Philippides
在2011年11月6日上午10:57


我一直从事任何类型的音频技术,从高端Hi-Fi分离到便携式音频。几年前,我被介绍了噪音隔离和降噪耳机/耳机,从那以后我再也没有回头。直到你从听力中消除外部噪音,你才会意识到有多少环境噪音,特别是如果你旅行和公共交通工具。
这是无源和有源噪声控制技术的入门读物,有望向您介绍这些技术的理论,优点和注意事项。
什么是噪音控制或减少噪音?
噪音是进入你耳朵的不必要的声音。在降噪或隔离耳机的环境中,它是您不想听到的任何环境声音,例如机器的嗡嗡声,飞机或火车的声音,婴儿的哭声,或者在忙碌时说话的人咖啡店。在耳机上听音频的同时,如果你切断了不必要的噪音,你可以降低音量,改善听觉体验,最重要的是你可以保护耳朵。
主动噪声消除VS.被动噪声控制或声音隔离
因此,有两种方法可以实现,一种方法是防止耳道对抗外界噪音,另一种方法是使用称为破坏性干扰的效果。当两个“镜像”声波相遇时发生破坏性干扰,然后这两个波相互抵消。当然,降噪性能取决于每个耳机的设计。
被动隔音耳塞(或入耳式耳机)的工作方式与耳塞非常相似。可以由弹性或泡沫制成的套管延伸到耳道中,并且如果它能够很好地贴合,则阻止(衰减)所有外部声音进入您的耳道并被听到。它们是便携式的,不需要电池并切断(减少)所有声音,包括声音等。不幸的是,由于它们的位置和耳道内的紧密配合,它们可能会让一些人觉得不舒服。它们也可能非常昂贵。使用覆盖整个耳朵的笨重耳机可以达到类似的效果。

Etymotic Research MC5隔音耳机

有源降噪(ANC)耳机或耳机在耳朵附近的每一侧都包含小型麦克风,可拾取外部噪音和特殊电路,产生异相(镜面)声波,将其与您实际收听的任何内容混合在一起。当外界噪音和耳机声音到达耳膜时,噪音部分会被取消。

使用ANC耳机取消的噪音大多是恒定的低频噪音,例如机器的嗡嗡声。诸如某人说话之类的可变频率噪声不会被该电路减少太多。然而,大多数ANC耳机还包括某种形式的噪声隔离,它可以消除高频部分,从而使您可以充分利用这两个领域。

索尼主动降噪耳机带控制单元

由于需要特殊电路,ANC耳机通常需要电池才能操作ANC电路,电池和电路通常包含在一个小型控制盒中。由于声音通过电子电路,声音质量将取决于电路的质量。
Shure和Etymotic Research以其高质量隔音耳塞而闻名。虽然Audio-Technica,Bose,索尼和松下制造了良好的有源降噪(ANC)耳机和耳机。
我个人喜欢的是ANC耳机,即使在长时间使用时也能保持舒适,降噪性能也很好;确定他们不提供一些昂贵的隔音耳机的录音室音质,但它们非常适合旅行时使用且物有所值。我们已经彻底审查了两台ANC耳机,Audio-Technica ATH-ANC23和Sony MDR-NC300D,请务必查看链接以阅读我们对每个耳机的看法。
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发表于 2019-3-31 15:13:51 | 显示全部楼层
这是好东西
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